Autonomous Vehicles

Localization and Mapping for Autonomous Driving

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Report Summary:

Cloud platforms and server based mapping platforms have become a crucial enabler of High Definition maps for autonomous vehicles. Increasingly, Automakers, Tier 1 suppliers and Platform enablers are using this in order to enhance their products in collaboration with advanced automotive sensors. The decade of the 2020s promises to be the first decade of decimeter level localization.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary
     1.1 High Definition Maps: Theory and Practice
     1.2 Existing HD Map Solutions Comparison
     1.3 Who Controls the Mapping Data?
     1.4 Abbreviations in this Report
2. HD Mapping Platform Companies
     2.1 AND
     2.1.1 AND MapFusion
     2.1.2 AND’s Partnerships, Funding and Collaborations
     2.2 AutoNavi
          2.2.1 AutoNavi’s HD Mapping Technology
          2.3 DMP (Dynamic Map Platform)
          2.3.1 DMP’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.4 HERE
          2.4.1 HERE HD Live Map Layers
          2.4.2 HERE’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.5 Hyundai MnSOFT
          2.5.1 Hyundai MnSOFT HD Mapping Solution for Autonomous Driving
          2.5.2 Hyundai MnSOFT’s RedBox
          2.5.3 Map Auto Creation
          2.5.4 Hyundai MnSOFT’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.6 Mapbox
          2.6.1 Mapbox Automotive
          2.6.2 Mapbox’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.7 Mitsubishi Electric
          2.7.1 Mobile Mapping System (MMS)
          2.7.2 Mitsubishi Electric Compact “MMS-G” Mobile Mapping System
          2.7.3 Mitsubishi Electric Launches Mapping Systems Division in Europe
     2.8 NVIDIA
          2.8.1 NVIDIA End-to-End HD Mapping
          2.8.2 NVIDIA Announcements, Partnerships and Collaborations for HD Mapping 
     2.9 Sanborn
          2.9.1 Sanborn M-Map, Advanced HD Maps for Autonomous Driving
          2.9.2 Sanborn’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.10 TomTom
          2.10.1 TomTom HD Map Development with RoadDNA
          2.10.2 TomTom Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     2.11 Uber
          2.11.1 Uber HD Mapping Approach
     2.12 Zenrin
          2.12.1 Zenrin’s HD Map Data
          2.12.2 Zenrin’s Line of Products
          2.12.3 Zenrin’s Partnerships, Alliances and Announcements
3. Sensors and Instrumentation for Localization and Mapping
     3.1 HD Maps from Sensor Data
     3.2 Aeva
          3.2.1 Aeva’s Aeries Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) LiDAR-on-Chip
          3.2.2 Aeva’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.3 Arbe
          3.3.1 Proprietary Chip Technology
          3.3.2 Arbe’s Post Processing & SLAM Software
          3.3.3 Arbe’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.4 Artisense AI
          3.4.1 Visual-Inertial Navigation System (VINS)
          3.4.2 Artisense’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.5 Baraja
          3.5.1 Baraja’s Investments, Announcements and Partnerships
     3.6 Blickfeld
          3.6.1 HD Mapping with Blickfeld LiDAR
     3.7 DeepMap
          3.7.1 Tier IV and DeepMap establishes technology alliance.
          3.7.2 DeepMap Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.8 Horizon Robotics
          3.8.1 Horizon Journey 2 Automotive AI Processor
          3.8.2 Software Mobility Stack for Journey 2
          3.8.3 Horizon Robotics Partnerships, Funding and Announcements
     3.9 Intempora
          3.9.1 Intempora’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
          3.9.2 Intempora’s RTMaps
     3.10 KuanDeng Technology
          3.10.1 KuanDeng Technology Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.11 Jakarto
          3.11.1 RoadSkeleton
          3.12 Kaarta    
    3.12.1 Kaarta Engine
          3.12.2 Kaarta Stencil 2
          (1) Stencil 2-16
          (2) Stencil 2-32
     3.13 Outsight
          3.13.1 Outsight 3D Semantic Camera
          3.13.2 Outsight’s Announcements, Funding and Partnerships
          3.14.1 POLYFUSION
          3.14.2 Large Scale Mobile HD Mapping Solution
          3.14.3 POLYEXPLORE’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     3.15 Robosense
          3.15.1 The RS-LiDAR-Algorithms
          3.15.2 Robosense Hardware/ Software Interfaces
          3.15.3 Robosense’s Announcements, Partnerships and Funding
     3.16 Terravision
          3.16.1 Ground Penetrating RADAR (GPR)
     3.17 GSSI (Geophysical Survey Systems)
          3.17.1 TerraVision LGPR
          3.17.2 More Testing is Needed
     3.18 Voxelmaps
          3.18.1 Voxelmaps SYMBO
     3.19 WaveSense
          3.19.1 WaveSense Ground Penetrating RADAR Solution
          3.19.2 WaveSense’s Announcements, Partnerships and Funding
     3.20 XenomatiX
          3.20.1 XenomatiX XenoLidar
          3.20.2 XenomatiX’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
4. Crowdsourced Regenerative HD Maps
     4.1 Atlatec
          4.1.1 Atlatec’s Technology
          4.1.2 Atlatec’s Off-the-Shelf Sensor Unit
          4.1.3 Atlatec’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     4.2 CARMERA
          4.2.1 CARMERA Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     4.3 Civil Maps
          4.3.1 Civil Maps Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     4.4 Comma AI
          4.4.1 Comma Maps for the Masses
     4.5 Mapillary
          4.5.1 Mapillary Dashcam Solution for Mapping
          4.5.2 Mapillary Announcements, Funding and Partnerships
     4.6 Intel/Mobileye
          4.6.1 Mobileye’s Roadblock and REM
          4.6.2 Intel/ Mobileye’s Partnerships on Crowdsourced Mapping Data and REM
5. Open Source Map Data Available for HD Maps
     5.1 Baidu Apollo
          5.1.1 OpenDRIVE and Apollo
     5.2 OpenStreetMap
6. Localization System Designs for Autonomous Driving
     6.1 Global Localization
          6.1.1 Localization is Crucial for Autonomous Vehicles and for Mapping
          6.1.2 Evolution of Localization Accuracy in the Last Century
          6.1.3 Satellite Navigation Systems
          6.1.4 Landmark-Based Navigation
          6.1.5 Dead Reckoning
          6.1.6 Inertial Navigation
          6.1.7 Visual Odometry
          6.1.8 SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping)
          6.1.9 Future of Localization
7. Companies Specializing Localization for Autonomous Driving
     7.1 Ception Technologies LTD (Localization)
          7.1.1 Ception’s Solution
          7.1.2 Ception’s Accurate Localization & Mapping Framework
     7.2 Machines with Vision
          7.2.1 Machines with Vision Solution and Visual Odometry
          7.2.1 Machines with Vision Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     7.3 NAVENTIK
          7.3.2 Traditional Setup VS PATHFINDER Software
          7.3.3 NAVENTIK’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     7.4 Navisens
          7.4.1 Navisens’s Partnerships, Announcements and Funding
     7.5 OxTS (Oxford Technical Solutions Ltd)
          7.5.1 OxTS Offers Ground Truth Measurements for Autonomous Vehicles
          7.5.2 OxTS Line of Hardware & Software Products for ADAS and Autonomous      Vehicle Testing
          7.5.3 Software Solutions
          7.5.4 OxTS Georeferencer and Boresight Tool
          7.5.5 OxTS Partners
     7.6 QuNav
          7.6.1 GIVE 1.0: GNSS/ Inertial Vehicular Engine for Automotive Applications
     7.7 SBG Systems
          7.7.1 SBG Ellipse 2-D
          7.7.2 SBG Apogee-D
          7.7.3 Ellipse 2 Micro INS
     7.8 Septentrio
          7.8.1 Septentrio mosaic
     7.9 Swift Navigation
          7.9.1 Swift Navigation Family of Products
     7.10 Trimble
          7.10.1 Timble GNSS Powers General Motors Super Cruise Feature
          7.10.2 Trimble RTX for Automotive Applications
     7.11 u-blox
          7.11.1 U-blox Collaboration with Molex MAX
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